# Royal Holloway Research Online

### Superconducting fluctuation effects on the electron spin susceptibility in YBa2Cu3O6.95

The electronic spin susceptibility of YBa2Cu3O6.95 has been measured with high precision up to 24 T with 17O nuclear magnetic resonance. Its temperature dependence can be accounted for by superconducting fluctuations that result in a smooth crossover from the normal to the vortex liquid state. A magnetic-field-temperature phase diagram for this crossover has been established having strong upward curvature. [S0163-1829(99)06033-6]

### Sufficient conditions for a digraph to be Hamiltonian

We describe a new type of sufficient condition for a digraph to be Hamiltonian. Conditions of this type combine local structure of the digraph with conditions on the degrees of nonadjacent vertices. The main difference from earlier conditions is that we do not require a degree condition on all pairs of nonadjacent vertices. Our results generalize the classical conditions by Ghouila-Houri and Woodall

### Agent Interaction and State Determination in SCADA Systems

In critical infrastructure environments, we argue that both adversaries and operators will utilize agents to manage dynamic attack/defence interactions in future. Agent behavior and, in particular, agent interaction require adequate modelling tools to reason over such situations in distributed environments where the state (malicious or non-malicious) of a channel or process can vary dynamically depending on the actions of opposing sides in attack and defence. For this purpose, we propose an extension to applied $\pi$-calculus to model agent behavior. We apply this extended calculus to the formal analysis of a class of agent-based attacks and its detection to demonstrate its utility.

### Scattering problem in nonequilibrium quasiclassical theory of metals and superconductors: General boundary conditions and applications

I derive a general set of boundary conditions for quasiclassical transport theory of metals and superconductors that is valid for equilibrium and nonequilibrium situations and includes multiband systems, weakly and strongly spin-polarized systems, and disordered systems. The formulation is in terms of the normal state scattering matrix. Various special cases for boundary conditions are known in the literature, which are, however, limited to either equilibrium situations or single band systems. The present formulation unifies and extends all these results. In this paper I will present the general theory in terms of coherence functions and distribution functions and demonstrate its use by applying it to the problem of spin-active interfaces in superconducting devices and the case of superconductor/half-metal interface scattering

### Isolated quantum dot in application to terahertz photon counting

We present an experimental study of a large quantum dot (QD) capacitively coupled to an aluminum single electron transistor (SET) and irradiated with terahertz radiation from a blackbody source. The SET is used as a noninvasive electrometer sensitive to a single-charge fluctuation on the QD. Qualitatively different regimes of QD confinement have been identified from the SET response. We demonstrate that the state of a nearly isolated QD can potentially be used for counting individual terahertz photons. © 2006 The American Physical Society

### The Faith and the Fury: Popular Anticlerical Violence and Iconoclasm in Spain, 1931 – 1936

This thesis is an exploration of the motives, mentalities and collective identities which lay behind acts of popular anticlerical violence and iconoclasm during the pre-war Spanish Second Republic (1931-1936) and the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The five year period following the proclamation of the democratic Second Republic in April 1931 was marked by physical assaults upon the property and public ritual of the Spanish Catholic Church. These grassroots attacks were generally carried out by rural and urban anticlerical workers who were frustrated by the Republic’s practical inability to tackle the Church’s vast power. On 17-18 July 1936, a rightwing military rebellion divided Spain geographically, provoking the radical fragmentation of power in territory which remained under Republican authority. The coup marked the beginning of a conflict which developed into a full-scale civil war. Anticlerical protagonists, with the reconfigured structure of political opportunities working in their favour, participated in an unprecedented wave of iconoclasm and violence against the clergy. During the first six months of the conflict, innumerable religious buildings were destroyed and almost 7,000 religious personnel were killed. This thesis challenges standard interpretations which link these acts to irrationality, criminality and primitiveness. It focuses directly upon the agents of anticlerical violence, exploring the connections between the anticlerical outpouring of July 1936 and those forms of anticlericalism that were already emerging before the coup. It argues that Spanish popular anticlericalism was a phenomenon which was undergoing a radical process of reconfiguration during the first three decades of the twentieth century. During a period of rapid social, cultural and political change, anticlerical acts took on new, explicitly political meanings, becoming both a catalyst and a symptom of social change. After 17-18 July 1936, anticlerical violence became an implicitly constructive force for many of its protagonists: an instrument with which to build a new society