Brunel University Research Archive

    Event Modeller Data Analytic for Harmonic Failures

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    Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). The optimum performance of power plants has major technical and economic benefits. A case study in one of the Malaysian power plants reveals an escalating harmonic failure trend in their Continuous Ship Unloader (CSU) machines. This has led to a harmonic filter failure causing performance loss leading to costly interventions and safety concerns. Analysis of the harmonic parameter using Power Quality Assessment indicates that the power quality is stable as per IEEE standards; however, repetitive harmonic failures are still occurring in practice. This motivates the authors to explore whether other unforeseen events could cause harmonic failure. Usually, post-failure plant engineers try to backtrack and diagnose the cause of power disturbance, which in turn causes delay and disruption to power generation. This is a costly and time-consuming practice. A novel event-based predictive modelling technique, namely, Event Modeller Data Analytic (EMDA), designed to inclusive the harmonic data in line with other technical data such as environment and machine operation in the cheap computational effort is proposed. The real-time Event Tracker and Event Clustering extended by the proposed EMDA widens the sensitivity analysis spectrum by adding new information from harmonic machines’ performance. The added information includes machine availability, utilization, technical data, machine state, and ambient data. The combined signals provide a wider spectrum for revealing the status of the machine in real-time. To address this, a software-In-the-Loop application was developed using the National Instrument LabVIEW. The application was tested using two different data; simulation data and industrial data. The simulation study results reveal that the proposed EMDA technique is robust and could withstand the rapid changing of real-time data when events are detected and linked to the harmonic inducing faults. A hardware-in- the-Loop test was implemented at the plant to test and validate the sensitivity analysis results. The results reveal that in a single second, a total of 2,304 input-output relationships were captured. Through the sensitivity analysis, the fault causing parameters were reduced to 10 input-output relationships (dimensionality reduction). Two new failure causing event/parameter were detected, humidity and feeder current. As two predictable and controllable parameters, humidity and feeder velocity can be regulated to reduce the probability of harmonic fluctuation.Malaysia’s government sponsorship, MARA

    Physiological function during exercise and environmental stress in humans: An integrative view of body systems and homeostasis

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    Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Claude Bernard’s milieu intérieur (internal environment) and the associated concept of homeostasis are fundamental to the understanding of the physiological responses to exercise and environmental stress. Maintenance of cellular homeostasis is thought to happen during exercise through the precise matching of cellular energetic demand and supply, and the production and clearance of metabolic by-products. The mind-boggling number of molecular and cellular pathways and the host of tissues and organ systems involved in the processes sustaining locomotion, however, necessitate an integrative examination of the body’s physiological systems. This integrative approach can be used to identify whether function and cellular homeostasis are maintained or compromised during exercise. In this review, we discuss the responses of the human brain, the lungs, the heart, and the skeletal muscles to the varying physiological demands of exercise and environmental stress. Multiple alterations in physiological function and differential homeostatic adjustments occur when people undertake strenuous exercise with and without thermal stress. These adjustments can include: hyperthermia; hyperventilation; cardiovascular strain with restrictions in brain, muscle, skin and visceral organs blood flow; greater reliance on muscle glycogen and cellular metabolism; alterations in neural activity; and, in some conditions, compromised muscle metabolism and aerobic capacity. Oxygen supply to the human brain is also blunted during intense exercise, but global cerebral metabolism and central neural drive are preserved or enhanced. In contrast to the strain seen during severe exercise and environmental stress, a steady state is maintained when humans exercise at intensities and in environmental conditions that require a small fraction of the functional capacity. The impact of exercise and environmental stress upon whole-body functions and homeostasis therefore depends on the functional needs and differs across organ systems.Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund

    Dirichlet composition distribution for compositional data with zero components: An application to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) detection of chromosome

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    Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Zeros in compositional data are very common and can be classified into rounded and essential zeros. The rounded zero refers to a small proportion or below detection limit value, while the essential zero refers to the complete absence of the component in the composition. In this article, we propose a new framework for analyzing compositional data with zero entries by introducing a stochastic representation. In particular, a new distribution, namely the Dirichlet composition distribution, is developed to accommodate the possible essential-zero feature in compositional data. We derive its distributional properties (e.g., its moments). The calculation of maximum likelihood estimates via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm will be proposed. The regression model based on the new Dirichlet composition distribution will be considered. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodologies. Finally, our method is employed to analyze a dataset of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome detection.National Natural Science Foundation of China. Grant Numbers: 12171167, 11801184; Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Grant Numbers: UGC/FDS14/P06/17, UGC/FDS14/P02/18

    Fast Processing Approach for Near-Field Terahertz Imaging with Linear Sparse Periodic Array

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    10.13039/501100000275-Leverhulme Trust (Grant Number: RL-2019-019)

    Study on the non-linear deformation and failure characteristics of EPS concrete based on CT-scanned structure modelling and cloud computing

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    Copyright © 2022 The Authors. To understand the complex deformation features and failure mechanisms of expanded polystyrene (EPS) concrete and reveal the composite effect of expanded polystyrene beads and polypropylene fibers, a series of experiments were conducted on the poured EPS concrete specimens. Meanwhile, a cloud computing system for 3D realistic failure process analysis (RFPA3D) was established to model the fine failure process of a real concrete structure. The micromorphology of the EPS concrete specimens was obtained via CT scanning and further processed using digital image processing technology. The Otsu algorithm was applied to automatically recognize the segmentation thresholds of each partition image and a procedure for CT image processing was designed to automatically realize digital image segmentation and merging. Then, the numerical models reflecting the microstructures of the EPS concrete specimens were built using the processed digital images and a series of 3D numerical simulations were performed using cloud-computing-based RFPA3D. The results show that for concrete with low EPS volume fracture, the non-smooth convex-step-shaped failure morphology, which is a typical brittle fracture characteristic, appears. In contrast, ductile fracture occurs for concrete with a high EPS volume fracture. Simultaneously, the addition of polypropylene fibers of a certain length can effectively prevent the formation and expansion of new cracks in the cement matrix. In addition, the peak strength of concrete increases with an increase in homogeneity while the residual strength generally decreases with an increase in homogeneity. Moreover, a more heterogeneous material presented more acoustic emission precursors before macro fracture. All these achievements greatly improve our knowledge of the design, construction, and maintenance of EPS concrete in civil engineering.National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 42102314); UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) New Investigator Award (Grant No. EP/V028723/1); China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2020M680950)

    Host cell entry mediators implicated in the cellular tropism of SARS‑CoV‑2, the pathophysiology of COVID‑19 and the identification of microRNAs that can modulate the expression of these mediators (Review)

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    Copyright: © Katopodis et al. The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) is mainly dependent on the underlying mechanisms that mediate the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) into the host cells of the various human tissues/organs. Recent studies have indicated a higher order of complexity of the mechanisms of infectivity, given that there is a wide‑repertoire of possible cell entry mediators that appear to co‑localise in a cell‑ and tissue‑specific manner. The present study provides an overview of the ‘canonical’ SARS‑CoV‑2 mediators, namely angiotensin converting enzyme 2, transmembrane protease serine 2 and 4, and neuropilin‑1, expanding on the involvement of novel candidates, including glucose‑regulated protein 78, basigin, kidney injury molecule‑1, metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2, ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (also termed tumour necrosis factor‑α convertase) and Toll‑like receptor 4. Furthermore, emerging data indicate that changes in microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression levels in patients with COVID‑19 are suggestive of further complexity in the regulation of these viral mediators. An in silico analysis revealed 160 candidate miRNAs with potential strong binding capacity in the aforementioned genes. Future studies should concentrate on elucidating the association between the cellular tropism of the SARS‑CoV‑2 cell entry mediators and the mechanisms through which they might affect the clinical outcome. Finally, the clinical utility as a biomarker or therapeutic target of miRNAs in the context of COVID‑19 warrants further investigation

    The re/constructed role of nursery schools as local community hubs in the current context of austerity

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    This Occasional Paper examines the re/constructed role of nursery schools’ in their local communities over the past decade. Our research explored the unique, social justice contribution that Nursery Schools make to the early years sector, in terms of educating children and supporting families from disadvantaged backgrounds. We define socio-economically disadvantaged families in our work as those whose parents are in receipt of state-provided benefits, and referred to hereafter as disadvantaged. The project focuses on Nursery Schools’ roles in reducing the disadvantage gap, through an examination of how staff in these schools see their own practice as improving disadvantaged children’s outcomes. Th research highlights some of the policy related context for this work, which may hinder practitioners in this aim. Our research confirmed that the role of the nursery school in supporting all children, but particularly those from socio-economically disadvantaged families has expanded considerably in the past decade as a direct consequence of austerity policies

    Dynamic Impact for Ant Colony Optimization algorithm

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    This paper proposes an extension method for Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm called Dynamic Impact. Dynamic Impact is designed to solve challenging optimization problems that has nonlinear relationship between resource consumption and fitness in relation to other part of the optimized solution. This proposed method is tested against complex real-world Microchip Manufacturing Plant Production Floor Optimization (MMPPFO) problem, as well as theoretical benchmark Multi-Dimensional Knapsack problem (MKP). MMPPFO is a non-trivial optimization problem, due the nature of solution fitness value dependence on collection of wafer-lots without prioritization of any individual wafer-lot. Using Dynamic Impact on single objective optimization fitness value is improved by 33.2%. Furthermore, MKP benchmark instances of small complexity have been solved to 100% success rate where high degree of solution sparseness is observed, and large instances have showed average gap improved by 4.26 times. Algorithm implementation demonstrated superior performance across small and large datasets and sparse optimization problems.Intel Corporatio

    The Limits of Super Recognition: An Other-Ethnicity Effect in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills

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    In the last decade there has been increasing interest in super-recognisers, who have an extraordinary ability to recognise faces. However, it has not yet been investigated whether these individuals are subject to the same biases in face recognition as typical perceivers. The most renowned constraint reported to date is the other-ethnicity effect, whereby people are better at recognizing faces from their own, compared to other, ethnicities. If super recognisers also show this bias, it is possible that they are no better at other-ethnicity face recognition than typical native perceivers – a finding that would have important theoretical and practical implications. In the current study, eight Caucasian super-recognisers performed other-ethnicity tests of face memory and face matching. In Experiment 1, super-recognisers outperformed Caucasian but not Asian controls in their memory for Asian faces. In Experiment 2, a similar pattern emerged in some super-recognisers on a test of face matching. Finally, Experiment 3 examined the consistency of superior other-ethnicity face matching in relation to Caucasian controls, using Arab and Black faces. Only four super-recognisers consistently outperformed controls, and other-ethnicity matching performance was not related to Caucasian face-matching or own- or other-ethnicity face memory. These findings suggest that super-recognisers are subject to the same biases as typical perceivers, and are simply those at the top end of a common face recognition spectrum as opposed to a qualitatively different group of individuals.British Academy Mid-Career Fellowshi

    The impact of monetary policy on inequality in the UK. An empirical analysis

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    The UK has experienced a dramatic increase in earnings and income inequality over the past four decades. We use detailed micro level information to construct quarterly historical measures of inequality from 1969 to 2012. We investigate whether monetary policy shocks played a role in explaining this increase in inequality. We find that contractionary monetary policy shocks lead to an increase in earnings, income and consumption inequality and contribute to their fluctuation. The response of income and consumption at different quantiles suggests that contractionary policy has a larger negative effect on low income households and those that consume the least when compared to those at the top of the distribution. Our evidence also suggests that the policy of quantitative easing may have contributed to the increase in inequality over the Great Recession.The Bank of England Donations Committe
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