Brunel University Research Archive

    Feral Parents: austerity parenting under neoliberalism

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    Copyright 2012 The Author. This article explores the discourse of 'feral' parenting that emerged during and in the direct aftermath of the UK riots of 2011 from an austerity perspective. Despite the riots occurring amidst a global economic downturn, a diversification of Britain's political landscape and great social unrest, this discourse positioned the culpability for the riots on a class of 'feral' children borne of 'feral' parents. More precisely, this blame was centred upon the lone, working-class mother. The 'feral' parent discourse created these parents in opposition to the 'austere' parent citizen inscribed as the norm within the current economic climate. Whilst this vilification has a substantial history and draws upon pre-existing notions of value, this discourse was simultaneously imbued with contemporary meaning to aid novel socio-economic and political incentives under austerity. Through analysing news media and political rhetoric, I argue that austerity parenting is a significant component of neoliberal governmentality whereby social norms around parenting, marriage and employment are naturalised

    Acoustic Emission Source Location Using Finite Element Generated Delta-T Mapping

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    Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at www.mdpi.com/xxx/s1, Figure S1: 505 title, Table S1: title, Video S1: title.Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. One of the most significant benefits of Acoustic Emission (AE) testing over other Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques lies in its damage location capability over a wide area. The delta-T mapping technique developed by researchers has been shown to enable AE source location to a high level of accuracy in complex structures. However, the time-consuming and laborious data training process of the delta-T mapping technique has prevented this technique from large-scale application on large complex structures. In order to solve this problem, a Finite Element (FE) method was applied to model training data for localization of experimental AE events on a complex plate. Firstly, the FE model was validated through demonstrating consistency between simulated data and the experimental data in the study of Hsu-Nielsen (H-N) sources on a simple plate. Then, the FE model with the same parameters was applied to a planar location problem on a complex plate. It has been demonstrated that FE generated delta-T mapping data can achieve a reasonable degree of source location accuracy with an average error of 3.88 mm whilst decreasing the time and effort required for manually collecting and processing the training data.Lloyd's 513 Register Foundation; Brunel University London; National Structural Integrity Research Centre, NSIRC studentship - Condition bases monitoring techniques for the early identification of stress corrosion cracking

    Abstract ESAO 2021: H46 - Wavelet Transform and Nonlinear SVM for Cardiac Arrhythmia Classification

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    Abstract, presented at the 47th Annual Conference of the European Society for Artificial Organs (ESAO 2021), London, UK (Virtual), 7-11 September.Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Objectives: Cardiac arrhythmia is a cardiovascular disease caused by impaired electrical conduction of the heart, resulting in irregular rhythms that increase the risk of stroke or can lead to sudden cardiac deaths. This work aims to develop an intelligent software for cardiac arrhythmia classification able to decrease the misdiagnosis probability and reduce the need for human expertise. Methods: Open-source ECG signals were utilized to produce an arrhythmia classification model using signal processing and Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. The signals were decomposed into 8 levels using discrete wavelet transform. The R-peaks were detected as the maximum points, while the Q and S were detected as the first local minima points on either side of the R-peaks. A set of nine features were extracted and fed into a support vector machine (SVM), classifying the signals in two classes: normal sinus rhythm and arrhythmia. Results: The proposed SVM model uses a Gaussian kernel function with a scale of 0.75, and the best total accuracy of 92.2% was achieved. The average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.82. Also, the confusion matrix of the model indicates a true positive rate (TPR) of 93.3%, for normal sinus rhythm and 80.5% for arrhythmia classification, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed methods provide a good base towards developing a software for accurate arrhythmia classification. The experimental results demonstrate its efficiency. For the future work, deep learning methods such as Convolutional Neural Networks will be explored to automatically extract the representative features, increasing the accuracy of the system.British Heart Foundation (FS/19/73/34690)

    Evaluating the Techno-economic Potential of an Integrated Material Recovery and Waste-to-Hydrogen System

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    Appendix. Supplementary materials: download Word document (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344920307102?via%3Dihub#:~:text=Download%20Word%20document%20(1MB) 1MB)Natural Environment Research Council (NE/R012938/1) through the UKRI/NERC Industrial Innovation Fellowship Programme

    Improving the Melting Duration of a PV/PCM System Integrated with Different Metal Foam Configurations for Thermal Energy Management

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    Data Availability Statement: Not applicable.Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. The melting duration in the photovoltaic/phase-change material (PV/PCM) system is a crucial parameter for thermal energy management such that its improvement can realize better energy management in respect to thermal storage capabilities, thermal conditions, and the lifespan of PV modules. An innovative and efficient technique for improving the melting duration is the inclusion of an exterior metal foam layer in the PV/PCM system. For detailed investigations of utilizing different metal foam configurations in terms of their convective heat transfer coefficients, the present paper proposes a newly developed mathematical model for the PV/PCM–metal foam assembly that can readily be implemented with a wide range of operating conditions. Both computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and experimental validations proved the good accuracy of the proposed model for further applications. The present research found that the average PV cell temperature can be reduced by about 12 °C with a corresponding improvement in PCM melting duration of 127%. The addition of the metal foam is more effective at low solar radiation, ambient temperatures far below the PCM solidus temperature, and high wind speeds in nonlinear extension. With increasing of tilt angle, the PCM melting duration is linearly decreased by an average value of (13.4–25.0)% when the metal foam convective heat transfer coefficient is changed in the range of (0.5–20) W/m2.K. The present research also shows that the PCM thickness has a positive linear effect on the PCM melting duration, however, modifying the metal foam configuration from 0.5 to 20 W/m2.K has an effect on the PCM melting duration in such a way that the average PCM melting duration is doubled. This confirms the effectiveness of the inclusion of metal foam in the PV/PCM system.Funding: This research received no external funding

    Measurement of the Inclusive and Differential Higgs Boson Production Cross Sections in the Decay Mode to a Pair of τ Leptons in pp Collisions at s =13 TeV

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    Copyright © 2022 CERN, for the CMS Collaboration. Measurements of the inclusive and differential fiducial cross sections of the Higgs boson are presented, using the τ lepton decay channel. The differential cross sections are measured as functions of the Higgs boson transverse momentum, jet multiplicity, and transverse momentum of the leading jet in the event, if any. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb−1. These are the first differential measurements of the Higgs boson cross section in the final state of two τ leptons. In final states with a large jet multiplicity or with a Lorentz-boosted Higgs boson, these measurements constitute a significant improvement over measurements performed in other final states.SCOAP3

    Measurement and QCD analysis of double-differential inclusive jet cross sections in proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV

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    Copyright © CERN, for the benefit of the CMS Collaboration. A measurement of the inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at s = 13 TeV is presented. The double-differential cross sections are measured as a function of the jet transverse momentum pT and the absolute jet rapidity |y|. The anti-kT clustering algorithm is used with distance parameter of 0.4 (0.7) in a phase space region with jet pT from 97 GeV up to 3.1 TeV and |y| < 2.0. Data collected with the CMS detector are used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.3 fb−1 (33.5 fb−1). The measurement is used in a comprehensive QCD analysis at next-to-next-to-leading order, which results in significant improvement in the accuracy of the parton distributions in the proton. Simultaneously, the value of the strong coupling constant at the Z boson mass is extracted as αS(mZ) = 0.1170±0.0019. For the first time, these data are used in a standard model effective field theory analysis at next-to-leading order, where parton distributions and the QCD parameters are extracted simultaneously with imposed constraints on the Wilson coefficient c1 of 4-quark contact interactions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]SCOAP3

    Springer Nature

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    A preprint version of the article is available at arXiv (https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.14511).Copyright © CERN, for the benefit of the CMS Collaboration. Double-parton scattering is investigated using events with a Z boson and jets. The Z boson is reconstructed using only the dimuon channel. The measurements are performed with proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC at s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1 collected in the year 2016. Differential cross sections of Z+ ≥1 jet and Z+ ≥2 jets are measured with transverse momentum of the jets above 20 GeV and pseudorapidity |η| < 2.4. Several distributions with sensitivity to double-parton scattering effects are measured as functions of the angle and the transverse momentum imbalance between the Z boson and the jets. The measured distributions are compared with predictions from several event generators with different hadronization models and different parameter settings for multiparton interactions. The measured distributions show a dependence on the hadronization and multiparton interaction simulation parameters, and are important input for future improvements of the simulations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]SCOAP3

    Search for flavor-changing neutral current interactions of the top quark and the Higgs boson decaying to a bottom quark-antiquark pair at √ s = 13 TeV